for tenor (or soprano) solo, chorus and orchestra Scoring: 3 (II=picc), 2, ca (=obIII), 2 , cl in Eb, 2, dbl bn (=bnIII); 4, 2, 3, 1; timps, 2 perc (xyl, sd, td, bd, whip, cymb); harp, strings; OFFSTAGE: 3 trumpets in C; sd (optional instruments are ca, dbl bn, offstage tpts and sd). Britten asks for the offstage instruments to be in a gallery or 'isolated position', and later to be out of sight. Text: W H Auden and Randall Swingler Publisher: Boosey & Hawkes Difficulty level: 3 (for chorus) This highly dramatic and rarely performed work was written for a Festival of Music for the People and first performed on 5 April 1939 at the Queen's Hall, London, conducted by Constant Lambert. It is another of Britten's passionate outbursts against the waste and horror of war which had already engulfed Europe once earlier in the century and was about to do so for the second time. The declaration of war was made on 3 September that year. His choice of texts is highly significant. He had collaborated with Randall Swingler as recently as the previous year on his short unaccompanied choral work Advance Democracy - another politically motivated piece (see separate entry). Both Swingler and Auden were aiming in their poems to goad the downtrodden Englishman into standing up and fully living the life of freedom for which their forebears fought and lost their lives. Swingler's lines which say: 'You who lean at the corner and say "We have done our best", ...To you we speak, you numberless Englishmen, To remind you of the greatness still among you...Your life is yours, for which they died'. sum up the essence of the message of the piece. The work is in three continuous movements. First comes a Funeral March (to Swingler's poem part-quoted above), then a manic Scherzo, a Dance of Death to a rum-te-tum verse by Auden which only increases its sense of the macabre. Finally comes a slow and powerful recitative and chorale and a slow Epilogue in which the funeral march music from the opening returns. Virtually the whole of the first section of the opening movement is in unison for the chorus. The slow tread of the funeral march is given an added solemnity by this unison singing. The first ten bars are recited on a low C, the next eight bars an octave higher, and after this there is a mixture of simple harmony (more to avoid high notes for low voices) and further unison singing for the rest of the movement. The Scherzo is interesting in setting out the first three vocal parts in a kind of fugal progress. The tenors have the first complete statement in the home key (G minor), the altos are next in the dominant but by themselves, the sopranos are next in line and back in the tonic - again by themselves, and finally the basses have the subject but this time as the basis of a canon at the unison between them and the altos (in a truncated version).